Urban agriculture, urban farming or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating, processing, and distributing food in or around a village, town, or city.These activities occur in peri-urban areas as well, and peri-urban agriculture may have different characteristics.
Urban agriculture can reflect varying levels of economic and social development. In London, it often takes the form of a social movement for sustainable communities, where organic growers, ‘foodies,’ and ‘locavores’ form social networks founded on a shared ethos of nature and community holism. These networks can evolve when receiving formal institutional support, becoming integrated into local town planning as a ‘transition town’ movement for sustainable urban development. In the developing areas, food security, nutrition, and income generation are key motivations for the practice. In either case, more direct access to fresh vegetables through urban agriculture can improve food security and food safety. On sites production, processing, packaging, and marketing of consumable products takes place. This results in an increase in entrepreneurial activities and the creation of jobs, as well as reducing food costs and improving quality. Urban farms provide employment, income, and access to food for urban populations, which helps to relieve chronic and emergency food insecurity. Chronic food insecurity refers to less affordable food and growing urban poverty, while emergency food insecurity relates to breakdowns in the chain of food distribution.